D-DAY 1944: Navy Battleship Guns Bombard Nazis at Omaha Beach

German fast boat attacks brought heavy casualites upon US forces attacking Omaha

Photo - Naval History and Heritage Command

The Perils of Operation Neptune: The U.S. Naval Invasion of Omaha Beach

By Kris Osborn - Warrior Maven

Struggling to withstand dangerous Nazi attacks on U.S. supply boats, three famous U.S. Navy battleships faced heavy resistance as they closed-in on the German-held Cotentin Peninsula as part of the D-Day invasion of Omaha Beach.

As entrenched Nazi forces mounted attacks, three U.S. battleships -- the USS Texas, the USS Nevada and the USS Arkansas -- pounded German coastal defenses with deck-mounted guns. In return, German fast boat and torpedo boat attacks, fortified by Luftwaffe air support, brought heavy casualties upon U.S. forces.

Nazi resistance to the U.S. attack on the Cotentin Peninsula, called the Battle of Cherbourg, forced the U.S. to move more naval resources to the well-defended peninsula.

“The Germans did destroy most of the ports and the piers to make it much more difficult to move supplies. Guys going into the battle in the Fall and Winter were still fighting in Summer clothes,” Naval History and Heritage Command historian, Guy Nasuti told Warrior in an interview last year .

Naval History and Heritage Command’s formal assessment reinforces this point. While citing German strategy, the assessment writes “the invader was to be denied access to all ports.”

The German destruction of ports greatly delayed and complicated the Allied approach, allowing German forces to regroup.

While recalling the naval portion of the assault, called Operation Neptune, Nasuti made a point to emphasize naval forces were supporting U.S. Army troops fighting ashore.

“Omaha was a much tougher fight than Utah. When things got bogged down in Omaha, the USS Texas and USS Arkansas got up close to shore to blast the German emplacements,” Nasuti said.

While approaching closer to the shoreline, U.S. Navy ships fought off heavy German attacks from mortars, artillery and machine guns.

“Hitler wanted the German Army to defend to the death, but a German general eventually surrendered,” according to Nasuti.

The Germans did not have a large U-boat presence because Hitler held many U-boats and Panzer tanks back even though they had been requested by German commanders, Nasuti added.

The German Omaha Beach defense plan, as catalogued by Naval History and Heritage Command, intended to destroy approaching forces at the coastline using supportive artillery and beach defenses, fortified by concrete or armor.

The Germans also constructed heavy lines of field defenses on the first suitable high ground inland from the coast.

“These field defenses were unable to give direct support to the coastal crust, except in few cases where the high ground came close to the coast,” states Naval History and Heritage Command’s “Neptune Operations Plans” write-up.

The Germans also used barbed wire, anti-tank obstacles, sea walls and mines.

Prior to reaching the coastline, attacking U.S. Navy forces contended with five German destroyers, nine to 11 torpedo boats and 50-60 E-boats.

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Osborn previously served at the Pentagon as a Highly Qualified Expert with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army - Acquisition, Logistics & Technology. Osborn has also worked as an anchor and on-air military specialist at national TV networks. He also has a Masters Degree in Comparative Literature from Columbia University.

More Weapons and Technology -WARRIORMAVEN (CLICK HERE)

--- Kris Osborn, Managing Editor of WARRIORMAVEN (CLICK HERE) can be reached at krisosborn.ko@gmail.com--

Comments (4)
No. 1-4
Bbal
Bbal

USS Arkansas had 12 inch guns. USS Nevada and USS Texas had 14 inch guns.

Tom S.
Tom S.

That's what I was thinking. As soon as I saw this, I wondered to myself: "Which BB's at Normandy had 16-inch"? I knew all the American BB's with 16-inch were in the Pacific, and I didn't remember Rodney or Nelson being there.

Kemaris1138
Kemaris1138

The only 16" guns available off any of the Normandy beaches were those of HMS Nelson and Rodney off the British beaches. The battleships stayed several miles out to sea, shelling targets as called for by observers or according to the fire plan. There were, however, a number of destroyers that came in to rifle range (~1,000 yards) of Omaha beach to fire at any identifiable target.

jjj47
jjj47

USS Arkansas-BB33 mounted 14"/50cal naval cannons; Texas-BB35 and Nevada-BB36 both mounted 14"/45cal guns.